Interventional radiology approaches for intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma
The use of loco-regional therapies for the management of patients with biliary tract cancer relies in addressing tumor growth and treat its local complications. This aims to reduce the risk of tumor-related liver failure, the most common cause of death among patients with intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Interventional radiology plays a critical role on the management of patients with ICC by providing loco- regional oncological, palliative, and bridging procedures for definitive therapy. In regards the oncological procedures offered by interventional radiology, current literature reports its main application for patients with ICC, with limited number of reports on the use of patients with extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In this review, we aim to provide a literature review on the use of interventional radiology procedures, specifically liver ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with Y90 for the loco-regional oncological treatment of patients with ICC. Finally, future directions on the role of such loco-regional oncological treatments offered by interventional radiology are discussed.