Breast cancer prognostic staging and internal mammary lymph node metastases: a brief overview

Jennifer K. Plichta


The incidence of cancer worldwide continues to increase, and it remains the second leading cause of death (1). Of the 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide in 2015, breast cancer was the most common in women (2.4 million cases) and was the leading cause of cancer deaths (523,000) in women (1). As such, the importance of effectively and efficiently communicating disease characteristics and prognosis remains essential to patients, clinicians, and researchers.