Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and gallbladder cancer: targeting with precision medicine approach
Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease with only about 20% of cases diagnosed in early stages. According to the American College of Surgeons/American Cancer Society National Cancer Database in the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual , 5-year survival rate is only 28% for patients with stage II gallbladder cancer and single digit in stage III/IV gallbladder cancers (http://www.cancer.org/cancer/gallbladdercancer/detailedguide/gallbladder-survival-rates). It is managed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with unresectable disease in late stages and no targeted therapy are available. Thus, novel treatment approaches are needed in gallbladder cancer.