Targeting the tumor microenvironment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma therapy

Yi-Fan Zhang, Shu-Heng Jiang, Li-Peng Hu, Pei-Qi Huang, Xu Wang, Jun Li, Xue-Li Zhang, Hui-Zhen Nie, Zhi-Gang Zhang


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most dangerous cancers, and the overall 5-year survival rate is only 8%. The microenvironment of PDAC, which promotes tumorigenesis, disease development and metastasis, consists of fibroblasts, immune cells, pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs), adipocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM). Because the microenvironment is a part of the tumor, it is also an important target for PDAC treatment. Several therapeutic regimens targeting PDAC microenvironment factors or cells have been investigated, but the treatment effects were poor. More research on the physiological and pathological mechanisms and clinical treatment of PDAC is necessary.